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Endnotes and Footnotes
Endnotes (citations and reference lists gathered at the end of each chapter or at the end of the paper) have been popular among academic writers, primarily because they make the transition from a submitted manuscript to published resource so much easier. Even so, parenthetical documentation styles (and their corresponding
list) have supplanted both footnotes and endnotes in most academic disciplines. Because of its relative ease in both writing and reading, parenthetical documentation is greatly preferred by most instructors.
For writers in some disciplines, however—most notably in some of the humanities disciplines such as music, art, religion, theology, and even history—footnotes are still widely in use. A student must check with his or her instructor to make sure that parenthetical documentation is an acceptable method of citing resources.
If used, the placement of footnotes can be at the bottom of the page, the end of the chapter, within the text (e.g., Johnson, 2003), or combined at the end of the text of the thesis, depending on the manuscript style. The writer must be consistent, however. An advisor or professor should approve of the footnote style. Remember, if consistent with the style sheet, footnotes or endnotes can be single-spaced.
Footnotes and endnotes appear with their corresponding superscript number and are written with the first line indented.